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“WHICH PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE HAVE THE GREATEST SYMPTOM BURDEN? A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ADVANCED CKD STAGE AND DIALYSIS MODALITY”

 

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Authors: Hayfa Almutary, Ann Bonner and Clint Douglas

Almutary_et_al-2016-Journal_of_Renal_Care

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to a range of symptoms, which are often under-recognised and little is known about the multidimensional symptom experience in advanced CKD.

Objectives: To examine (1) symptom burden at CKD stages 4 and 5, and dialysis modalities, and (2) demographic and renal history correlates of symptom burden.

Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of 436 people with CKD was recruited from three hospitals. The CKD Symptom Burden Index (CKD-SBI) was used to measure the prevalence, severity, distress and frequency of 32 symptoms. Demographic and renal history data were also collected.

Results: Of the sample, 75.5% were receiving dialysis (haemodialysis, n¼287; peritoneal dialysis, n¼42) and 24.5% were not undergoing dialysis (stage 4, n¼69; stage 5, n¼38). Participants reported an average of 13.017.67 symptoms. Fatigue and pain were common and burdensome across all symptom dimensions. While approximately one-third experienced sexual symptoms, when reported these symptoms were frequent, severe and distressing. Haemodialysis, older age and being female were independently associated with greater symptom burden.

Conclusions: In CKD, symptom burden is better understood when capturing the multidimensional aspects of a range of physical and psychological symptoms. Fatigue, pain and sexual dysfunction are key contributors to symptom burden, and these symptoms are often under-recognised and warrant routine assessment. The CKD-SBI offers a valuable tool for renal clinicians to assess symptom burden, leading to the commencement of timely and appropriate interventions.

Correspondence:
Hayfa Almutary, PhD Candidate, MN, RN, BN
School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology,
Victoria Park Rd., Kelvin Grove, QLD 4059, Australia
Email:  hayfa.almutary@connect.qut.edu.au